30 JULY 2021

Accountability is ability and/or duty to report (or give account of) on events, tasks, and experiences. Whereas responsibility is an ongoing duty to complete the task at hand. Accountability is what happens after a situation occurs. Responsibility may be bestowed, but accountability must be taken. Responsibility is project- and task-oriented. Accountability is results-oriented or results-focused. It is possible to bear responsibility for something or someone but still lack accountability. The responsible person is responsible for action/implementation without the need of an authorisation. In Project management RACI matrix is commonly used to establish accountabilities and responsibities.

Authority having jurisdiction. An AHJ can be an organization, office, or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, materials, an installation, or a procedure."

Area is the amount of space within the perimter of a 2 dimensional space.

Base year is the first year of the series of years in the Planning Horizon. It can also be the year with which the values of other years are compared.

A bid is an an offer made to the owner of the asset by an interested party, individual, investor, trader, dealer or a corporation to purchase an asset. Bids (or proposals, quotations, tenders or submissions) may also be made by companies (bidders) that compete for winning project contracts. The bidder is bound to perform to the party to whom the offer is made, if the bid is accepted, for the duration of the validity of the bid. The one who wins is a called a successful bidder. A bid can become a contract only if it is accepted for the bid amount (consideration) or as agreed by the parties involved.

It is a document or a spreadhseet that provides measured quantities of work in an itemised way. BOQ is prepared by quantity surveyors, estimators or cost consultants. A BOQ is issued to bidders to provide their prices against the quantities given for every work item. The BOQ shows quantities (of activities, materials, resources and labor) required to fully complete items of work or to manufacture a product. Bill of Materials (BOM), on the other hand is a detailed list with quantities of of raw materials required for each and every assembly and sub-assembly required to manufacture a product or construct an item of work.

A breakdown structure (a tree diagram or parent-to-child relationship) is a hierarchy of components of some or all aspects of a project, programme or portfolio. Examples include Cost breakdown structure (CBS), Organisational breakdown structure (OBS), Product breakdown structure (PBS), Resource Breakdown Structure, Risk Breakdown Structure and Work breakdown structure (WBS). The hierarchical structure can be shown in a tree, an outline and or in a tabular shape.

A budget is prepared for a future period, and is an estimation of revenue and expenses. The budget is what you're allowed to spend or consume during the prescribed future period. An estimate on the other hand is an approximation of what your project will cost or need in terms of money or resources. The estimate provides a guideline, the budget provides boundaries. An estimate is created for a project, and based on available resources and funds, a budget is allocated to the project.

A claim is an assertion of a right; a demand for something as due. In Project Management, a claim can result from delays, changes, unforeseen circumstances, insufficient information and conflicts. Claims might be made for losses, unforseen expenses, and extension of time etc..

A Client Brief also known as Asset Brief, is a document created by the Client, Sponsor, Proponent or the Owner. It's from the Client brief that everything else flows. Its a point of reference that can be agreed at the outset and therefore, to some extent, form a contract between client and the designer or the execution agency. The Client or the Proponent may ask a Designer, a Consultant or a Project Management Organisation to help in developing a Client Brief to define and lock the intentions of the Client. A Client Brief can be prepared at the conception/ initiation of a project to develop themes and pre-concepts, or at the start of a concept design process, or at the start of the construction activity.

Closeout or Closing of a project is the successful completion of a project and the final transfer of assets to the client or the end user.

Completion of a project may happen in many ways and stages, such as Beneficial Occupancy, Partial completion, Sectional completion, Mechanical Completion, Substantial completion, Final completion, Certificate of occupancy, and Contract completion. Beneficial Occupancy is the term used to describe the procedure when the End-User occupies or makes use of any part of the work prior to Substantial Completion. Substantial completion is the stage when a construction project is deemed sufficiently completed to the point where the owner can use it for its intended purpose. Final completion also known as final acceptance is defined by the date when the enduser/ owner determines the construction project to be 100% completed, and all major/ minor punch list work concluded.

A competency is the capability to apply or use a set of related knowledge, talent, skills, and abilities required to successfully perform "critical work functions" or tasks in a defined work setting, at a competitive level. A competency is an internal activity that a person or a company perfroms better than other internal activities. A core competency is a better performed internal activity than other internal activities which is essential to a person or company's strategy, success, profitability and competitiveness. A distinctive competency is established when a core competency has helped in achieving a competitive advantage.

It is prepared by the Contractor. The purpose is to outline how a Contractor of a particular project will avoid, minimize or mitigate effects on the environment, surrounding area and local community. CESMP details the specific implementation of measures in accordance with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report prepared for the project and in accordance with the Environment Licence issued by the AHJ. CESMP is the primary document for managing potential environmental and social risks and opportunities during the Project.

A contract is a written (or even spoken) agreement between any number of parties. It defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties. A contract is legally binding, and enforceable by law, only when it meets the requirements of applicable law of the land. e.g. in In the Anglo-American common law, formation of a contract generally requires an offer, acceptance, consideration, and mutual intent to be bound. Furthermore, the Competency and capacity of parties is important such as Minors and people with limited mental capacity are not considered competent. Needless to say that laws require a Contract to serves a legal purpose. Some jurisdictions require that contracts involving more than a certain amount say $500, be in writing in order to be enforceable.

Cost is the expense incurred for creating a product or developing a service. The cost impacts the profit and the price. Price is what the customer is willing to pay or seller is willing to sell the product or the servcie for. The price of a product or service is based on supply and demand, thats why Prices are adjusted as market conditions change. Cost shows actual direct or indirect expences incurred for raw materials, labor, operations, etc.

The critical path consists of the longest sequence of activities from project start to finish that must be completed to ensure the project is finished by a certain date/ time. The tasks on the critical path are known as critical activities because if they're delayed, the whole project will be delayed.

It is the unauthorized transmission of data from within an organization to an external destination or recipient. It is one of the Top Corporate Risk (TCR). With the proliferation of email, Internet, and Social Media, data Leakage is a major risk to both individuals and organizations. With the click of a button a user can unintentionally expose sensitive information such as an employee record or company’s intellectual property. Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) is a combination of people, processes, and technologies to minimize leakage of sensitive data. This is accomplished by identifying, monitoring, and blocking sensitive data while in-use, in-motion, and at-rest.

It is a situation where project activities occur at a later time than expected and agreed, due to causes related to the contracting parties, or causes out of the control of the contracting parties. Delays can be Critical or Non-Critical, Excusable or Non-Excusable, Concurrent or Non-Concurrent, Compensable or Non-Compensable.

A Design Brief also known as Creative Brief is a document created by the Designer after receiving the Client Brief from the Client. Its a written document for a design project developed in consultation with the client/ proponent/ owner. They outline the deliverables and scope of the project including any products or works (function and aesthetics), timing and budget. The Brief usually changes over time and adjusted as the project scope evolves. Often it is 'signed off' by the client and designer at pre-set stages in the project.

It is the removal of water from a solid material or soil. It is done to drain or to remove rainwater or groundwater (above ground of below ground) from an excavated area (or an area to be excavated) before construction can begin, or before it can be used for intended purpose. In Construction projects, dewatering allows excavation work by creating dry and stable conditions below natural groundwater level. Methods used are filtration, centrifugation or other solid-liquid separation processes etc..

An estimate is an approximation of the value of a project before execution of work from the best information available.

It is a systematic structured hazard analysis tool based on a team-based brainstorming approach. The purpose of the Environment Identification (ENVID) process (mainly a workshop) is the early identification of aspects that can potentially impact the environment due to a development project, and then evaluate the potential environmental risks associated with construction.

The purpose of an ESIA is to identify, predict and evaluate the potential positive (opportunities) and negative (risks) impacts caused by project implementation. This is assessed through an analysis of the effects resulting from interaction between environmental and social components and the various activities of a project and its development, including temporary (for example, during construction) and associated facilities.

It is an implementation guiding tool for managing the the environmental and social impacts of a development project. It provides procedures (mitigation measures) to ensure that social and environmental impacts, risks and liabilities identified in ESIA already are effectively managed during the construction, operation and closure of the proposed project.

An environmental assessment is a process to identify, predict and evaluate the potential environmental effects/ consequences of a proposed idea, program, project, plan, policy etc. This process happens before decisions about a proposed project to move forward are made. It is an early level assessment. It can be transformed in to an EIA or ESIA to be developed by a person or a company for a proposed project at pre-concept design stages. It can also be transoformed in to an SEA to be developed by the organs of a state for a proposed policy or a proposed program.

An EIA is prepared to estimate the effects of a proposed development or a construction project. EIA provides technical evaluations that are intended to contribute to more objective decision making. In its broader sense, the concept of EIA captures the idea of assessing proposed actions, ranging from projects to policies, with respect to their likely implications for the environment, including both social and biophysical components. The relevance of the social dimension of projects has then been increasingly acknowledged, insomuch that new approaches to impact assessment have emerged calling for an integrated perspective where environmental and social matters are equally acknowledged and evaluated, hence ESIA is becoming an industry norm.

Scoping happens after Screening and before the Assessment (EIA/ ESIA). It is a process of determining the scope, content and extent of the matters (establishing the boundaries) which should be covered in the environmental information to be submitted to a competent authority for projects which are subject to EIA/ ESIA. A draft Scoping Report is prepared and circulated amongst AHJs/ Stakeholders/ Consultees before it is finalised and issued as the agreed terms of reference for the EIA. The consultees may include other interested parties and the general public. The AHJs must provide a Scoping Opinion to the applicant. Scoping Opinion does not preclude the AHJ from subsequently requiring the developer to submit further information if the competent authority considers that it is necessary. The fact that the AHJ has given an opinion shall not preclude it from subsequently requiring the developer to submit additional information.

EIA screening is the first step in EIA/ ESIA process after a project has been initiated. It results in a key EIA decision, namely to either conduct the assessment (based on the likely significant impacts) or not conduct it (in the anticipated absence of such impacts). It is a kind of brainstorming for impacts and alternatives. If it is concluded that an EIA/ ESIA is not required, then an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) has to be created, apporved by the AHJ and monitored.

Fire is a chemical reaction. It is an exothermic process giving out energy (heat, light, electricity, sound etc). It is rapid oxidation of a fuel (where fuel can be any material that catches fire). According to the fire tetrahedron, 4 elements or ingredients are necessary to start a fire. Fuel, Oxidiser, Heat, and a Chain Reaction. Fires start when a flammable or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen-rich compound (though non-oxygen oxidizers exist), is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, and is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction.

Gravity is one of the universe's fundamental forces. It causes all things or objects with mass or energy to be attracted to one another (or gravitate to one another). Gravity is considered as the most significant interaction between all objects and determines the motion of planets, stars, galaxies, and even light.

Horizon year is the last year of the Planning Horizon. Planning Horizon is the amount of time an organisation will look into the future when preparing a strategy, time schedule, inventory, analysis, assessment, forecast etc.

Hydraulic head or simply "head" is the elevation of a water body above a particular datum level (commonly above sea level). It is the energy possessed by a unit weight of water at any particular point. The hydraulic head consists of three parts: the elevation head, the pressure head and the velocity head. Elevation head or geodetic height is defined with reference to a standard level or datum; the pressure head is defined with reference to atmospheric pressure; and the velocity head (or kinetic head) represents the motion or the kinetic portion of the head. Velocity head is the vertical distance through which a liquid would have to fall to attain a given velocity. Water invariably flows from points of larger hydraulic head to points of lower head, down the hydraulic gradient.

It is the point or the place at which independent and often unrelated systems meet and act on or communicate with each other, or depend on each other.

During radio communications/ telephonic conversations, to avoid confusion, to prevent spelling mistakes or to prevent miscommunication, especially when people from different countries with different accents and pronunciations work together, the spelling alphabets, or more commonly called phonetic alphabets, are used while spelling words.

A memo (also known as a memorandum, or "reminder") is a written message used for internal communications regarding procedures or official business within an organization. Memos bring attention to problems, and they also provide solutions. The purpose is to inform the reader – not to persuade. Memos are used for policy changes, price increases, or to persuade the reader to take an action, such as attend a meeting, or change a current procedure. Sometimes it may be adressed to a single person, signed and counter-signed by various people, asking the adressee to sign/ acknowledge in the end, as an acceptance/ concurrence. Memos are concise and exact, allowing the decision makers to assimilate the content quickly.

It is a a reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends or proves to be just, right, or reasonable. A justification provides sufficient reasons to show that an action is correct or acceptable. A justification is an explaination, not a proof. A proof is an effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth. Proofs are not meant to act merely as justification for the discovery of "facts"; they are themselves the "facts" to be discovered.

Key Milestone means an important milestone for completion and delivery of a specified service or a deliverable (Ready for Acceptance, Ready for Installation or Ready for Service) at a certian date agreed by the Parties before signing the contract.

Key Personnel in a contract are any "roles" or "individuals by name" that are agreed as mandatory for execution of the contract and for the duration of the contract. "key" means its a major provision of a contract, a contractual obligations, and any violation can result in a breach of contract and lead to a legal action. Many contract agreements require that if the Contractor desires to substitute any Key Personnel, either permanently or temporarily, the Contractor shall provide written notice to the Client's Representative of the proposed substitution and the Client shall have the right to disapprove the proposed personnel change by written notice to the Contractor. Key personnel must devote sufficient time to maintain primary responsibility of the Account. Some Key personnel by role are, Project manager, Construction manager, Quality manager, Security manager, Safety manager, Environment manager, Controls manager, Document controller etc..

Leadership is the ability of an individual or a group of individuals to influence and guide followers, team members or other members of an organization to do whats's required or to do the right thing.

Lessons learned (good or bad) is the knowledge gained while executing a project. The lessons learnt database is maintained by organisations to ensure that they repeat the positive aspects and not repeat the mistakes.

Machinery is any mechanical, electrical, or electronic device designed and used to perform some function and to produce a certain effect or result. The term includes not only the basic unit of the machinery, but also any adjunct or attachment necessary for the basic unit to accomplish its intended function. The term also includes all devices used or required to control, regulate, or operate a piece of machinery, provided such devices are directly connected with or are an integral part of the machinery and are used primarily for control, regulation, or operation of machinery. Machinery does not include buildings designed specifically to house or support machinery. Machinery is a collection of machines that operate together in order to accomplish a single task. Machines do not necessarily require human intervention to work. On the other hand, "Equipment" is any tangible personal property used in an operation or activity and requires human intervention.

It is a reference document stating rules, limitations and provisions that could be applied in the measurement of works for all major tasks, trades, sections and elements of construction projects. This is normally associated with the bill of quantities of a tender/ project and becomes a part of tender/ contract documentation. It is alse called Standard Method of Measurement (SMM).

It is a failure to behave with the level of care that someone of ordinary prudence would have exercised under the same circumstances. To prove negligence, "duty of care" is the first element that must be established.

An order is an authoritative instruction (or a request) to do something, supply something, or make something, or provide a service.

Pandemic is an outbreak of a disease that has spread across several countries or continents. Epidemic is a sudden outbreak of a disease in a certain geographical area.

A pavement is an artificially covered/ paved durable surface. The primary purpose of a pavement is to provide a smooth surface, to prevent/ minimise moisture penetration and to transfer loads from pedestrian or vehicluar movements to underlying ground, which could be made of natural soil, or compacted layers of soil or compacted layers of crushstone.

It is an integrated approach to organizational performance management that results in delivery of ever-improving value to customers and stakeholders, and hence contributing to organizational sustainability. It provides a framework and an assessment tool for understanding organizational strengths and opportunities to learn and for improvement, and thus guides in planning for excellence.

Water that is clear, safe and tasty and is suitable for drinking and food preparation is called potable water or drinking water. Water that is not potable could be contaminated, polluted or toxic due to presence of substances or materials that may cause a harmful effect on humans, animals, and plants.

Power is defined as the rate at which work is done upon an object or rate at which energy is being used. Power is a time-based quantity and shows (decides) how fast a job is done. It shows the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time.

Prequalification is an initial evaluation of an applicant's ability (or more than one applicants) to qualify for a specific role/ task/ activity based on a preset criteria and scoring method. Pre-approval is same as a pre-qualification but not for a specific task but for any probable role/ task/ activity in the future.

The value or the amount of money expected, required, or given in payment or in exchange for something, a product or a service. A Price consists of a complex set of calculations and includes the input costs, direct costs/ overheads, indirect costs, profits, ability to pay, market conditions, competitor actions, trade margins etc.

A program is a collection of projects that are managed as a group to achieve efficiencies of scale. A project represents a single, focused endeavour. All projects in a program complement each other to assist the program in achieving its overall objectives.

Progress is a process, the way things move in the positive direction of improvement. Progress on a project can be an indication of elapsed time, value achieved, money spent or effort made.

It is an endeavour to create a unique result, an asset, a system or a facility. It has series of tasks for anything that is contemplated, devised or carried out individually or collaboratively, and possibly involving research or design, and is completed in order to reach a specific outcome. It has a definite start and a definite finish date with all scope deliverables defined by the End-User/ Owner; and scope developed/ specified in detail by Project Execution Agency. An idea or proposal becomes a project only when its authorised by the Competent Financing Authorities for execution by a Competent Project Execution Agency.

A Project Brief or an Abbreviated Project Execution Plan, is generally created by the Project Managerment/ Construction entity on directions from the Project Sponsor, Client or the Proponent. A Project brief should communicate the project approach and the process the Project Management Team will use to manage and deliver the project according to scope. A good Project Brief should act as an agreement on project objectives, scope, major deliverables, milestones, timing, activities, process, and even resources needed to complete and deliver. A project brief can be a precursor to a Project Execution Plan.

It is a professional service that provides a combination of specific knowledge, various skills, relevant experience, and efficient tools required to complete the delivery of a specific project to the end user, according to agreed key objectives, scope deliverables, time schedule, budgeted cost, and desired quality.

In terms of Project Management, the Proponent is the initiator of the project and determines the initial concept and content of a project. The Project Proponent may or may not be the Project Sponsor or the Project Operator or the End User depending on the size of the organisation and nature of the project.

PQI is a tool to show in a composite way the overall state of quality on a project. It allows evaluation of key factors/ quality measures/ quality performance indicators against benchmarks of acceptable quality. Key factors are scored and where necessary weighted to highlight the importance to the organisation. The final figure is usually expressed as a percentage.

PSI is a tool to show in a composite way the overall state of workplace safety on a project. It allows evaluation of key factors/ safety performance indicators against benchmarks of acceptable workplace safety.

In terms of Project Management, the Sponsor is always at or near the top of any project management hierarchy. This individual is the critical connection between the project managers and the organization's executive team. Being the owner of the project, the Sponsor performs the central role for the governance of the project and is accountable for the continuing validity of the business case throughout the chosen life cycle. The Project Sponsor may take the role of Project Proponent, Project Operator or the End User depending on the size of the organisation and nature of the project.

It is a device, (mechancial/ hydraulic) used to transfer different fluids from one location to another. It converts electrical energy in to hydraulic energy. It uses suction or pressure or both to raise, transfer, deliver, compresse or attenuate fluids.

Irases, transers, delieror compressor at attenu fluids.tesn Construction projects, a punch list is a to-do list, a table/ document listing works not conforming to scope requirements or contract specifications. The Punch-list is prepared before handing over key milestones of the scope. The list may include incomplete or incorrect installations or incidental damage to existing finishes, material, and structures. The list is usually made with contributions from all stakeholders while they tour and visually inspect the project. A punch-list differentiates between minor and major items, where the end-user may accept substantial completion after closure of major items; and may accept total completion after closure of minor items. Mostly Excel sheets are used to develop and track punchlists, but software also exist such as BIM360. Punchlist items are normally termed as "exception items" while signing a completion certificate with acceptable minor items mentioned on the cerificate.

Quality is an innate or acquired distinguishig attribute, feature or a characteristic of something. Quality can be good or bad, high or low. In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality defines the suitability of something for its intended use (fitness for purpose) while satisfying customer expectations. Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people.

Quality Management includes all the activities that organizations use to direct, control, and coordinate quality. These activities include formulating a quality policy and setting quality objectives. They also include quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement. Quality Management in a project assures the quality of the project deliverables and the quality of the processes and procedures used to manage and develop the deliverables.

The Quality Management approach states that all personnel in the project should do the right things, right the first time, thus avoiding misunderstandings of what to produce. The approach should help avoid productivity losses, quality losses and schedule delays.

It describes the necessary information required to effectively manage project quality, from project planning to delivery, comprising quality objectives in the project, roles and responsibilities, and the Quality Management approach to ensure that the quality objectives are achieved. The intended audience is the project team and any senior leaders whose support is needed to carry out the plan. This Quality Plan is to be continually reviewed, and any changes to the plan will be handled by the project's procedure for Change Management. The plan is approved by the Project Manager.

A quality management system (QMS) is a system that documents the policies, business processes, and procedures necessary for an organization to create and deliver its products or services to its customers, and therefore increase customer satisfaction through high product quality.

A Quality Objective is a quality result that you intend to achieve. Quality objectives are based on or derived from an organization’s quality policy and must be consistent with it. They are usually formulated at all relevant levels within the organization and for all relevant functions.

Short for Reinforcement Bar or Reinforcement Steel, commonly made of carbon steel, in the shape of hot-rolled round bars, either plain or deformed patterns.

A reference to an author or an article or journal is provided in a document to show your reader that you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information. A reference also gives credit to other researchers and acknowledges their ideas. It also shows that you are not plagiarising by quoting words and ideas created by other authors. References are needed for all material which you have directly referred to or quoted from in your document. References are listed in the Reference section, in alphabetical order of author's last name. On the other hand, Bibliography is the list of background material you have read for your work, but may not have used directly or quoted in your document.

The total physical space/ area of a large project can be divided into various Regions (or zones) for ease of identifying various areas/ sub-areas of the project.

A report can be spoken or can be written in the shape of a document or a presentation or a graph in which information about an occurance or about a project is narrated or is presented in an organized format for a target audience and for a specific purpose. A report helps in communicating, sharing information, findings or status with team members and stakeholders, and thus helps in decision making and also in problem solving. Transparency and accuracy are keys to writing a useful report. A report presents facts and information specifically to a specific audience, in a formal and crisp manner, and does not provide opinions as it is casually done in essays. Instead of opinions, the report may provide inferences and recommendations with solid analysis, pictures, charts, tables and data.

A resource is a source of supply, aid, or support (in the shape of money, assets, materials, manpower and equipment) that is used or can be readily used when needed, by a person or an organisation to function effectively and to achieve its objectives.

Responsibility is task-oriented/ task focused, where as accountability is results oriented/ result focused. Accountability is assumed by one, whereas responsibility is bestowed to many.

A risk is a possibility of an undesirable concsequence (to health, well-being, wealth, property or the environment) due to an action/ activity. Risk Management involves identification, evaluation to prioritise risks; and then to develop and implement a plan for minimising, controlling, and monitoring to mitigate risks. Risk Management is important in all aspects of life, but many individuals/ organizations refuse to commit resources to risk management as they feel that it is not worth investing effort in managing uncertainties when there are more than enough certainties to spend time on.

A schedule is list of planned activities, in a sequence or in parallel, to be done at (or things to be acquired), or during a particular time or within an estimated duration.

It is a written document, a narrative, that describes in detail (it is not a specification) the work to be executed or delivered. It is an essential part of the contract or agreement where all expected tasks and deliverables are explained with the purpose of aligning expectations (a shared vision) between both parties.

A sector is a distinct economic aspect/ activity of a society. Businesses share the same or related business activity, product, or service in a sector. A sector can be divided in to 3 main sub-sectors to represent raw materials, manufacturing and services. Each sector or sub-sector can also be divided in to Public Sector, Private Sector, Voluntary Sector, Research and Development, and Human Resources.

Its a written document (or a set of documented requirements) describing in detail the nature of work, materials to be used, standards to be followed, methods of installation, and quality of workmanship for a project (or to complete and deliver a project, service, material or a design) to be placed under contract; usually utilized in conjunction with other documents such as scope of work/ deliverables, employers requirements/ procedures, drawings, key milestones, and a contract document.

An individual, or an organization, who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project. Project Stakeholders are nominated by the Project Owners/ Proponents.


Supply is a finite number of products or services the market can provide. On the other hand Demand refers to consumers' desire to purchase goods and services at given prices.

Traffic impact assessment (TIA) is technical analysis of traffic problems, level of service of roadways/ intersections, and transportation related safety issues on an existing area or for an expansion or for a proposed development.

Being Unique or Uniqueness is the state or condition where something is unlike anything else. Its the only one of its kind. Its highly unusual, extraordinary and rare. A unique object has a certian property that can not be found in any other object.

It is a device (sometimes called a fitting), that is installed on passageways, flowlines or pipelines or equipment to regulate, direct or control the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing the passageways.

In Supply chain, and in broader terms, a Vendor is almost the same as a Supplier or a Contractor who buys/ imports products or services from manufacturers or agencies/ companies and then sells/ delivers them to businesses or consumers. To differentiate, a Supplier can be considered to be involved in B2B (Business to Business), whereas a Vendor is considered to be involved in B2C (Business to Consumer). The supplier is also considered a partner in the business, helping to enhance your company image while providing a mutually beneficial relationship. Vendors are typically in the business of providing items that can be inventoried, while suppliers deal more in raw materials that will be turned into something else. Hence vendor relationships are usually focused on price comparisons, while supplier relationships are more attuned with how the supplier influences the quality of the product.

It is an assessment of worth or usefulness of something, either in terms of cash or importance. The economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service, measured relative to units of currency.

It is a systematic and organized approach to improve the quality/ value of goods or products and services by providing necessary functions in a project at the lowest cost. Value engineering promotes the substitution of materials and methods with less expensive alternatives, without sacrificing functionality.

The ratio of the mass of water, to the mass of portland cement in a cementitious mixture, stated as a decimal and abbreviated as w/c. Mass of water does not include that absorbed by the aggregates. Abraham's Law states that, with given concrete materials and conditions of test, the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of the cement in the mixture determines the strength of the concrete, provided the mixture is of a workable consistency. W/C ratios of 0.40 to 0.60 are more typically used. For higher-strength concrete, lower ratios are used, but lesser water will make the concrete less workable, hence plasticizers are added to increase flowability. Too much water will result in segregation of the sand and aggregate components from the cement paste.

Before designing a water supply system and establishing the sizes and capacity of water supply units such as pipes, pumps, reservoirs etc., it is important that the probable water demand of the community to be served is calculated. The water demand can be estimated by ascertaining different purposes for which the water will be used and the quantity of water likely to be used for each purpose.

Work Breakdown Structure. The work breakdown structure defines the scope of work in a hierarchical way into manageable chunks that a project team can understand. It should be created as a deliverable-oriented decomposition of the work required to produce your project's deliverables. Various levels (deliverables and sub-deliverables) of the work breakdown structure provide definition and detail. A well prepared WBS makes it easier to allocate time and cost estimates to specific sections of the work breakdown structure, and thus a project schedule and a budget can be quickly developed. As the project executes, specific sections of the work breakdown structure can be tracked to identify project cost performance and identify issues and problem areas in the project organization.

This website is solely managed by Sohail Moughal as a personal research to understand, manage and archive various aspects of his work in his life. It is continuously being updated and developed, and the information at the time of viewing may be incomplete. It is personal to Sohail Moughal and any use of information by others does not make Sohail Moughal liable, guilty, responsible and/ or accountable for anything at all.